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Thread: [W:146]**The Qur'an in chronological order.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Quote Originally Posted by stevecanuck View Post
    Then, as if to say, "Hey, did I forget to tell you about the virgins???, he made sure to include them in the brochure.
    I guess that's what you could expect from a guy who supposedly married a 9 year old girl. When I hear talk of "72 virgins", it sounds more like a veiled-reference to 72 girls. Ugh. Doesn't sound like paradise for each set of 72.


    OM

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 8's 75 verses are revealed after the Battle of Badr, which, as previously stated, was the first major battle between Muslims and Meccan pagans. Although it is titled "The spoils of war", only verses 1, 41, 68, and 69, which decree that one fifth of war booty must be turned over to the Muslim community, and that Muslims can enjoy booty they take as God has made it lawful to them, are actually dedicated to that topic. The rest of the surah is part recap of the battle, and part call to arms in a general, on-going sense. Both parts are used to create a whole meant to rouse the believers to continued fighting:

    5-8 chastise some Muslims who were reluctant or afraid to fight.
    9-14 speak of the battle as God recounts the ways he helped the Muslims defeat the Meccans. Verse 12 tells them to "smite their necks and fingers". Neck smiting is a punishment used to this day. Verse 13 explicitly states that the Meccans are being fought because, "they opposed Allah and His messenger", which is to say they are being punished for not accepting Islam.
    15 and 16 are important as they seem to be speaking in general terms rather than specifically of the battle. They say Muslims are not to turn their backs to the enemy or they risk being sent to Hell.
    17 tells Muslim warriors that they are merely God's instrument as it says, "And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them".
    22 dehumanizes the pagans by calling them "the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah because they are deaf and dumb".
    30 not only bolsters Mohamed's claim that he barely escaped Mecca with his life, but offers a further clue that this war had a personal pay back component to it, "Remember how the Unbelievers plotted against thee (Mohamed), to keep thee in bonds, or slay thee, or get thee out (of thy home). They plot and plan, and Allah too plans; but the best of planners is Allah".
    31 through 38 further vilify the pagans by reiterating their crimes of unbelief and of barring Muslims from the sacred mosque (the Kaaba). Their prayers are described in verse 35 as "naught but whistling and hand-clapping".
    39 speaks of the fight to come after Badr. Now that a state of war exists, this verse urges Muslims to carry on and, "fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do". This is Yusuf Ali's interpretation, which is restricted to the word-for-word meaning. However, Mohsin Khan, as he frequently does, adds further explanation and context in brackets, "And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do". Khan is saying that fighting is not merely to make the enemy lay down their arms, but to impose Islamic rule on them.
    42 through 46 again remind Muslims of the help God gave them in the battle, and tell them to always stand firm during a fight.
    47 through 51 describe the pagans as having diseased hearts (49) whose souls will be smitten by angels (50).
    52 through 54 again bring up the story of Moses and Pharoah.
    55 issues arguably the Qur'an's worst insult to unbelievers, "For the worst of beasts in the sight of Allah are those who reject Him: They will not believe".
    57 says to deal harshly with defeated forces as a warning.
    65 is a direct call for fighting written in the future tense rather than in reference to the battle. It says, "O Prophet! rouse the Believers to the fight. If there are twenty amongst you, patient and persevering, they will vanquish two hundred: if a hundred, they will vanquish a thousand of the Unbelievers: for these are a people without understanding".
    67 claims that a prophet should not take prisoners of war until he, "hath made slaughter in the land".
    70 and 71 tell captives God will reward them if He, "finds anything good in your hearts", which means if they embrace Islam. We know this because unbelievers have often been described as those with a disease in their hearts.

    Verses 72 through 75 summarize the overall message of this surah in clear fashion as they heap praise upon those who fought in the cause of God, and speak of the necessity to continue to do so. They also provide three more examples in which the word 'jihad' is used to describe fighting, further removing any doubt that it mainly refers to one's internal struggle. With this surah, Mohamed has completed the transition from preacher to fighter.
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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 3 is next, but a great deal had happened in both the war with Mecca and in developments in Medina that should first be discussed to establish historical context:

    First, Mohamed expelled the Jewish Banu Qaynuqa tribe from Medina and confiscated their wealth. The justification for this stemmed from an incident in which a Jew embarrassed a Muslim woman by exposing part of her leg. The Jew was killed by a Muslim man who in turn was killed by a group of Jews in retribution. This led Mohamed to lay siege to their fortress and to expel them after they surrendered without a fight. It could easily be suggested that Mohamed used a single incident as a convenient excuse to expel an entire tribe rather than to treat it as the criminal matter that it clearly was, and to mete out appropriate punishment to the perpetrators.

    Second, an agreement called The Constitution of Medina was drafted by Mohamed. Actually this occurred before the Battle of Badr, but came into play at this point. Although there are historians who disagree on many aspects of the Constitution, including some who go so far as to question its existence. I have not researched it enough to express my own opinion, plus I feel it would create a needless distraction to this summary to get into that argument. I mention it only because it is frequently brought up in terms of providing justification for the expulsion of Jews from Medina.

    Third, the Battle of Uhud was fought one year after Badr. This time the result was a stalemate as the Muslims were forced to retreat to Medina with significant loses, while the Meccans, although suffering fewer loses, went home without a clear victory rather than exploit the weakness of the Muslims and pursue them.

    Fourth, in the aftermath of the Battle of Uhud, the Banu Nadir, one of the two remaining major Jewish tribes in Medina, was expelled by Mohamed for alleged acts of treason. Although the story varies, and is not mentioned in the Qur'an, Mohamed claimed to have evidence of either a Banu Nadir plot to kill him, or that they colluded with the Meccans. This left only the Banu Quraiza, whose fate will be discussed later.
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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 3's first 63 verses are reminiscent the first 86 surahs from Mecca. They repeat all of the well-worn reminders of God's power, omniscience, and oneness, warnings of Hell, promises of Heaven, the Qur'an being an extension of the Torah and the Gospels, and several Old Testament references. Some notable verses include:
    13, which invokes the battle of Badr. It confirms that the fight was purely religious in nature as it describes the opposing forces thus, "one party fighting in the way of Allah and the other unbelieving". Every mention of fighting in the Qur'an is given in this context.
    28, which says, "Let not the believers take the unbelievers for friends". This is repeated several times in future surahs.
    32, which leaves no doubt that Islam is hostile not only toward the Meccans of the 7th century, but with unbelievers in general, "allah Ado al kafirina (God is the enemy of unbelievers)".
    56, which highlights the dichotomy between belief and unbelief on which the entire Qur'an is based, "as to those who disbelieve, I will chastise them with severe chastisement in this world and the hereafter". Verses such as this, combined with the aforementioned 8:17, "And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them", are the building blocks of terrorism.

    Verses 64 through 71 accuse Jews and Christians of falsely claiming that Abraham was a Jew, when he was in fact a Muslim by virtue of being a monotheist. Verse 71 says, "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): "Why do you mix truth with falsehood and conceal the truth while you know"?

    Verses 72 through 80 explain that some Christians and Jews are reliable and do not spread such lies, but also among them are those who distort scripture although they know better. Verse 79 and 80 say that Jesus, because he has been given 'the book' and wisdom, would never tell people to worship anyone other than God.

    Verses 81 through 91 can only be described as strident, as they as sound as though they were authored by a frustrated and angry person rather than by a God who could erase unbelief with one wave of His hand if it distressed him as much as these passages indicate:
    82 - "If any turn back (from the covenant with God), they are perverted transgressors".
    83 - "Do they seek for other than the religion of God"?
    85 - "If anyone desires a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted of him".
    86 - "God guides not a people unjust".
    87 - "On them rests the curse of God, his angels, and all of mankind".
    88 - "Their penalty will not be lightened".
    90 - "Those who reject faith...never will their repentance be accepted".
    91 - "Those who die rejecting faith...for such is a grievous penalty".

    And 109 more fun-filled verses from surah 3 to come.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    92 reminds Muslims to give to charity, and seems to stand alone, as it is neither prefaced nor followed by similar verses.

    96 and 97 speak of the sanctity of the Kaaba, and inform the faithful that they must make a pilgrimage to it at least once if they are able.

    98 - 101 again accuse Christians and Jews of denying the truth about God (the Qur'an as preached by Mohamed), and warns Muslims not to be misled by them.

    102 - 109 are yet another reminder to "not die except in a state of Islam (102)", or to "taste then the penalty for rejecting faith (106)".

    The People of the Book face more verbal abuse in verses 110 - 120:
    110 - "Some of them have faith, but most are perverted transgressors".
    111 - "If they come out to fight you, they will show you their backs, and no help shall they get".
    112 - "Shame is pitched over them unless they are protected by treaty. They earned God's wrath because they rejected his signs, slew His prophets, and transgressed".
    113 - 115 state that not all People of the Book are alike. Some "enjoin what is right, and forbid what is wrong (114)". To "enjoin what is right" of course is to accept the teachings of Mohamed and therefore of Islam.
    116 - "Those who reject faith...will be companions of the fire".
    117 - "It is not God who has wronged them, but they have wronged themselves".
    118 - "O ye who believe! Take not into your intimacy those outside your ranks: They will not fail to corrupt you. They only desire your ruin: Rank hatred has already appeared from their mouths: What their hearts conceal is far worse".
    119 - "Ye are those who love them, but they love you not,- though ye believe in the whole of the Bible. When they meet you, they say, 'We believe': But when they are alone, they bite off the very tips of their fingers at you in their rage. Say: Perish in your rage; Allah knoweth well all the secrets of the heart".
    120 - "If aught that is good befalls you, it grieves them; but if some misfortune overtakes you, they rejoice at it. But if ye are constant and do right, not the least harm will their cunning do to you".

    I realize that the above is a lot of direct quotes, but I felt it would be hard to convey God's displeasure with the People of the Book by using my own words in summary form.

    121 - 129 refer to the Battle of Uhud telling Muslims that the success at Badr occurred because they did not break ranks, disobey orders, or display cowardice as some did at Uhud.

    130 - 139 forbid usury (charging interest), encourage giving to charity, and warn that eternity in either Heaven or Hell hangs in the balance.

    The Battle of Uhud did not go well for the Muslims, so 140 and 141 attempt to offer an explanation. First, God assures them that, "If a wound should touch you - there has already touched the [opposing] people a wound similar to it", even though that is not at all what happened. Then He goes onto explain that wins and losses are sometimes alternated as a test, and further cautions that this will result in the martyrdom of some; all of which is designed to result in eventual victory and destruction of the enemy, "And these days We alternate among the people so that Allah may make evident those who believe and take to Himself from among you martyrs". - and Allah does not like the wrongdoers. And that Allah may purify the believers [through trials] and destroy the disbelievers".

    Verse 143 ("Did ye think that ye would enter Heaven without Allah testing those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained steadfast"?) deserves special attention for a couple of reasons. First, it reinforces that fighting in God's cause is a prerequisite for entry into Heaven. Second, the Arabic verb used for fighting is not 'qatl', but 'jihad'. Four of the seven translations in corpus.quran.com chose to translate it as 'fighting'. This is just one more proof that 'jihad' is used interchangeably with 'qatl' in the context of warfare.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Verses 144 - 151 rally the faithful to fight by reminding them God is with them and will reward them in Heaven:
    144 says not to abandon Islam should Mohamed die.
    145 reminds Muslims they must choose between rewards on earth or in Heaven.
    146 - 148 urge Muslims to fight "in the cause of God" by invoking, but not specifying, past examples. They reaffirm that fighting is always stated as being "in the cause of God". All fighting in Islam is for Islam.
    149 and 150 warn believers to not listen to unbelievers because God is everything they need.

    Verse 151 is a perfect example of the strident preaching that defines the tone of the Qur'an. Unlike the bible, which is mostly story-telling, the Qur'an is a fire and brimstone sermon. - "Soon shall We cast terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers, for that they joined companions with Allah, for which He had sent no authority: their abode will be the Fire: And evil is the home of the wrong-doers"!
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Non-Muslims (with the pagans of Mecca being the usual target) are frequently called "al zalimuna" (الظلمين). This is variously translated as "oppressors", "wrong-doers", "unjust", and "evil-doers". They earned this title by doing nothing more than rejecting the oneness of God and Mohamed's claim of prophet-hood. They committed no criminal act other than disbelief in Islam, and for that, Mohamed made war on them.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Verses 152 - 180 Continue to rouse believers to fight as it revisits the Battle of Uhud:
    152 - 155 claim God was helping the Muslims slay the Meccans until they disobeyed Mohamed by leaving their post to collect war booty, proving that some of them still covet worldly goods over the hereafter. To test them and to teach them a lesson, He then turned the battle in favor of the Meccans. Despite these transgressions, He has since forgiven them.
    156 - 158 say not to be hesitant to fight, because God chooses when a person will die, and death in "the cause of God" will result in a great reward.
    159 praises Mohamed for forgiving those who failed him at Uhud (thereby conveniently keeping them available for future fights).
    160 is another promise of God's aid in battle.
    161 - 164 seem to be a defense of Mohamed by claiming he would never cheat anyone out of rightful war booty as illegal booty collectors are not equal in the sight of God, and Muslims should feel blessed to have him sent to them.
    165 says Muslims only have themselves to blame for Uhud.
    166 says Uhud was a test.
    167 - 168 berates the Hypocrites for refusing to fight.
    169 - 174 are a reminder that those killed in the cause of god are not dead and will receive a great reward.
    175 warns that Satan will tell you to fear, but trust in God.
    176 - 177 are a reassurance that disbelievers can not harm God. They will burn in hell.
    178 tries to explain further why God did not give the Muslims a victory at Uhud as He did at Badr, "And let not the disbelievers think that Our postponing of their punishment is good for them. We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness. And for them is a disgracing torment".
    179 repeats that the current state of affairs is a test so that God may distinguish the faithful from the unfaithful. This contradicts previous verses that say God is "well aware of what is in your heart". Which is it?
    180 warns that those who hoard God's gifts (ie: do not spend "in the cause of God") will regret it on Judgement Day.

    In short, the Battle of Uhud did not go well for three reasons (although some might call them excuses) :
    1. Some in the Muslim army abandoned their post due to greed.
    2. God allowed a near outright defeat in order to test the faithful and to teach them a lesson.
    3. He wanted to give the unbelievers more time to fall further into sinfulness.

    181 - 184 are another attack on the Jews, who are accused of bragging of their riches while calling God poor, of killing God's prophets (again without naming them), and of rejecting Mohamed and therefore Islam.
    185 is a reminder of inevitable death and judgement.
    186 tells Muslims they will be tested and will have to endure "much abuse" from unbelievers.
    187 again attacks Christians and Jews - "And remember Allah took a covenant from the People of the Book, to make it known and clear to mankind, and not to hide it; but they threw it away behind their backs, and purchased with it some miserable gain! And vile was the bargain they made".
    188 says those who love "praise for that which they have not done" will burn in Hell.
    190 - 194 repeat the 'believe or burn' theme.
    195 praises those "who emigrated (from Mecca to Medina with Mohamed)" and those "who fought and were slain".
    196 - 198 return to 'believe or burn'.
    Verse 199 says, "And there are, certainly, among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), those who believe in Allah and in that which has been revealed (the Qur'an) to you (Mohamed), and in that which has been revealed to them (the bible), humbling themselves before Allah. They do not sell the Verses of Allah for a little price, for them is a reward with their Lord. Surely, Allah is Swift in account". This verse clears up the mystery created in 2:62, which states, in contradiction to the rest of the Qur'an, that Jews and Christians "shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve". For a Christian or Jew to believe in all the scriptures, which now include the Qur'an, simply means they have converted to Islam. They are still "people of the Scripture" by heritage, but are now Muslims, and therefore in God's favor.

    Verse 200 ends this surah with a reminder for the faithful to remain steadfast in belief.

    With each surah from Medina, God makes it ever more clear that fighting, and if need be, dying, are the surest means of spending eternity in Heaven.
    Last edited by stevecanuck; 09-09-19 at 07:02 PM.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 33 is next, but again, much happened in the meantime that should be known for context:

    First, the Battle of the Trench took place in 627. The Meccans, who found themselves in a war they neither started nor wanted, decided to try to end it by attacking Mohamed's army in Medina with a combined force that included Arab bedouins and members of the previously expelled Jewish Banu Nadir tribe. Because of this alliance, it was also known as the Battle of the Confederates. It ended, largely due to a massive trench dug by the defenders, in a complete victory for the Muslims, effectively ending Mecca's will and ability to fight. The eventual conquest of all of the Arabian Peninsula was now all but assured. It is important to note that the one remaining Jewish tribe, the Banu Quraiza, tried to remain neutral. They aided the Muslims only to the extent of lending them the tools to dig the trench, but did not join the fight on either side. This decision sealed their fate.

    Second, immediately after the battle, Mohamed claimed to have received a visit from Gabriel who told him he was not finished fighting. Instead, he was instructed to attack the Banu Quraiza. The ensuing siege lasted for more than two weeks and ended when the Jews surrendered unconditionally. Mohamed appointed a Jewish convert to Islam, Sa'd ibn Mua'dh, to decide their fate. He announced that all males of fighting age, with puberty being the deciding factor, were to be beheaded, their women and children to be taken as slaves, and their property to be seized. Mohamed agreed that God would have made the same decision, so the sentence was carried out. Between 600 and 900 men were then murdered, and with that, the last vestige of Jewish presence in a city once called Yathrib was eradicated. It only took Mohamed five years to wipe out the Jews after they had welcomed him to their city.

    The debate over whether Mohamed was justified in his actions against the Jews, or if he rationalized them using convenient excuses, is well worth having, but would have no effect on the remaining content and context of the Qur'an.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 33 begins with eight unremarkable verses that need not be summarized. If any gaps appear in this summary, it is because the verses in question have no real impact.

    Verses 9 - 27 deal with the Battle of the Trench:

    In 9 - 20, God reminds the Muslims who fought in the battle how afraid they were at the beginning, with some trying to excuse themselves from the fight and encouraging other to join them in retreat. They are accused of breaking their pledge to God to stay and fight, and are told He will see to it that retreat will only save them for a short time.

    21 - 25 heap praise on those who stayed and fought, and were rewarded when God (through their efforts) routed the Meccans.

    Verse 26, in my opinion, is one of the most important in the Qur'an, "And those of the People of the Book who aided them (the Confederates) - Allah did take them down from their strongholds and cast terror into their hearts. (So that) some ye slew, and some ye made prisoners". This refers to the siege and massacre of the Banu Quraiza. It accuses them of aiding the Confederates although no proof or detail is offered. Their 'crime', as illogical and absurd as it may sound, was refusing to fight and die for Mohamed, and therefore Islam. For this they were wiped out.

    Verse 27 confirms that their lands and possessions were turned over to the Muslims.

    Apologists will argue that the Banu Quraiza broke the terms of their pact with Mohamed by refusing to fight to protect the city, but this does not hold water. The Meccans were not attacking Medina itself, but the Muslims. The Jews were under no threat from the Meccans and therefore had neither reason nor obligation to fight. In my opinion, Mohamed simply had no further use for the Jews since his major foe had just been neutralized, and eliminating them would give him complete control of Medina.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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