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Thread: [W:146]**The Qur'an in chronological order.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Surah 2, the longest at 286 verses, is the first from Medina, although the first 39 verses vary little from the previous 86 surahs. However, verse 40, which starts with, "O children of Israel", tells us his audience is now Jews. In 40 through 86 the Jews are reminded of their history, their covenant with God, the favors He granted them, the times he interceded on their behalf, and their many transgressions, such as worshipping the golden calf (51) and perverting the scriptures (79). Verse 86 summarizes God's displeasure with the Jews thus, "These are the people who buy the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter: their penalty shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped."

    In the midst of verses in which the Jews are being chastised appears 62, which seems not only out of context, but contradictory to everything we have read so far about unbelievers. It says, "Those who believe (in the Qur'an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve." If this includes Christians who believe Jesus is the son of God, then it is a direct contradiction of all the previous passages that say "telling a lie concerning God" is a ticket to Hell. A search for an explanation led me to a website A review of verses 2:62 and 3:85 – A Study Of Qur'an that attempts to make the point that it does indeed not include Christians who believe Jesus to be the son of God. Apparently the authors of this website do not know what 'Christian' means. I was not impressed by that explanation and therefore I continue to consider this verse to be a blatant contradiction.

    The remainder of surah 2 to come.
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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    To this point, there is almost nothing to distinguish Islam from Judaism. Mohamed's (pardon me, I mean God's) problem is not with the OT, but with those who don't believe in it (the pagans of Mecca), and those who profess to believe in it, but failed to adhere to it (the Jews of old). As to new tenets and commands, the Qur'an adds only the 5 pillars and the requirement to say, "insha'allah" when invoking the future.

    The remainder of surah 2 changes all that. You won't belieeeeeve what I found!

    Sorry, I couldn't help but insert a little click bait there.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Verse 89 jumps to Mohamed's time. The Jews are now being damned for failing to accept Mohamed as the next (and last) of God's apostles in what can only be described as a rant. Verse 90 shows that the Jews of Medina have incurred God's wrath as much as their forefathers had; "Evil is that for which they have sold their souls: They have refused to accept God's revelations in rebellion against the servant of God whom He has chosen to grant His message (Mohamed). They have brought upon themselves God's wrath in addition to the wrath that they had incurred upon themselves for their previous sins. The disbelievers will suffer a humiliating torment." Further accusations of infidelity and/or perversion continue until verse 141. For example:

    2:91 - The Jews are asked (not for the first time) why they have killed the prophets of the past. Never are these prophets named, nor is there any indication in Jewish history that such a thing happened.
    2:92-93 - The golden calf is mentioned again.
    2:94-96 - Jews should long for death if they are indeed the 'Chosen Ones', but they do not because they are the most greedy for life on earth.
    2:98 - This verse should be read attentively to let its message sink in - "Whosoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His Messengers, and Gabriel, and Michael - surely God is an enemy to the unbelievers." This is saying in no uncertain terms that simply being an unbeliever is all that it takes to be considered an "enemy to God", and therefore to Islam and Muslims; a feeling that is reciprocated by God. In my opinion, this is one of the most defining verses of the Qur'an as it proclaims Muslims and unbelievers as enemies to each other.
    2:99 - Unbelievers are perverse.
    2:100-103 - Jews can not be trusted to keep their promises to God.
    2:104 - Unbelievers will be punished.
    2:105 - Unbelievers do not wish for God to send good things to Muslims.
    Verse 2:106 appears to be another non sequitur. It states that God will not abrogate any revelation without substituting a better one. No further explanation or example is given.
    2:109 - Many Christians and Jews (people of the book) wish they could cause Muslims to backslide away from Islam, but be patient with them until God gives His command. Note that patience is only required temporarily.
    2:111 - Christians and Jews, where is proof of your religion.
    2:116 - God does not have a son.
    2:120 - Christians and Jews will never be satisfied until you (Muslims) follow their religion.
    2:121 - Believe the Qur'an or go to Hell.
    2:122-134 - God reminds the Jews again of their past and of the building of the kaaba by Abraham and Ishmael and of their devotion to God.
    2:135-141 - God reaffirms the superiority of Islam over the perverted interpretation of scripture held by Christians and Jews.

    That is one very busy surah, and I'm not even half way through it.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    From verse 142 to the end of the surah, God is now talking to Muslims. His first command to them is to face the Kabaa in Mecca while praying (142-150). Islam is starting to take on a distinct character. Verses 151 through 167 are mostly unremarkable reminders to follow Islam or burn in Hell. All but verse 154, another non-sequitur parachuted into a series of verses about something else.

    It introduces the first element crucial to the development of Islam as a warrior religion, "And say not of those who are slain in the way of God that they are dead. No, they are living although you perceive it not." Nothing to this point has confirmed that hostilities are expected to be part of the new religion, but here we have God assuring Muslims that they will not perish if they die for Islam.

    It could be argued that this was hinted at in 109 where Muslims are told to be patient with Christians and Jews "until God gives his command." On the other hand, it could also be said, since God has not yet ordained fighting, that He is talking about Muslims who may be killed while preaching or proselytizing. We will soon see which is the case.
    Last edited by stevecanuck; 07-16-19 at 08:24 PM.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Verse 171 takes the denigration of unbelievers to a new level with, "Preaching to unbelievers is like talking to someone who cannot hear anything except yells and shouts. They are deaf, dumb, and blind; they have no understanding." The Qur'an has already called non-Muslims such names as 'evil-doers' and 'unjust' hundreds of times in the Meccan surahs, and this demonstrates that no let-up is in sight.

    Next, Mohamed, having finally gained a sizable Muslim following, began rule-making in earnest:
    2:172-173 - Rules for diet are set.
    2:174-176 return, apropos of nothing, to infidel bashing.
    2:177 - The five pillars are reiterated.
    2:178-179 - Rules of retribution (qisas) are set.
    2:180-182 - Bequests are to be honored.
    2:183-187 - Rules for fasting are set.

    The next set of verses deserve their own post.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    During the revelation of surah 2, Mohamed began hostilities by raiding Meccan caravans. The pagans responded by sending forces to protect their caravans, but, despite having superior numbers, they were defeated by the Muslims in the Battle of Badr. An ensuing war lasted three years, ending in complete victory for the Muslims. Mohamed's reason for waging war may, in part, have been to settle a grudge against the pagans for their rejection and mockery of his pleas to convert to Islam, However, more importantly, he considered their ownership of the Kaaba to be blasphemous. His goal was to conquer Mecca in order to take control of the Kaaba, to purge it of all pagan idols, and to keep it for exclusive use by Muslims.

    After a couple of hints that this might be coming, the following 4 verses justify war and give the order for Muslims to fight "fee sabil allah" (in the way of God). Although the conditions described below under which Muslims are expected to fight are limited to beginning with self defense, these verses mark the most pivotal point in the development of Islam as they explicitly mandate killing for God:

    But first, a very short Arabic lesson. The Arabic word used nine times below (highlighted) and translated as either 'fight', 'slay', 'slaughter' or 'kill' is 'qatl' (قتل). This usage of 'qatl' leaves no doubt that the command to fight refers to warfare.

    2:190 - Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.
    2:191 - And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.
    2:192 - But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
    2:193 - And fight with them until there is no persecution, and religion should be only for Allah, but if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.

    This series begins with a command to fight in self defense. The order to wage offensive warfare has yet to come. (Verse 2:190, frequently quoted without contextual relation to later verses, is a favorite of those who say that Muslims fight in self defense only.) These verses fit perfectly with the historical context in which they were written in that pagan Meccans are clearly indicated to be the likely foe in such a war. References to being "turned out", the "Sacred Mosque" (the Kaaba), and "those who suppress faith" leave no doubt of that. It might be reasonable to find no fault with these commands since people should not be blamed for doing nothing other than defending themselves, and if they stopped at that, I would probably agree. However, 2:193 tells Muslim to prosecute this not-so-theoretical war to the point that "religion should be only for Allah". This verse makes it obvious, in my opinion, that Mohamed wants his army to press forward until the Kabaa is in Muslim control, and the Meccans are thoroughly defeated.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Verse 194 finishes this section on fighting by telling Muslims to only fight in the holy months if attacked, although 217 below may be seen to contradict this.

    The next few verses establish rules regarding spending "in the way of God" and holy pilgrimage, followed by more warnings.

    The next three verses return to the subject of fighting. Verse 216 should not only be read in full, but with more than one English translation. Yusuf Ali translation: "Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not." Mohsin Khan gives a stunning variation with, "Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you..etc."

    Again, 'qatl' is the Arabic word translated by Yusuf Ali as 'fighting', whereas Khan not only equates 'qatl' with 'jihad', he further defines it as 'holy war'. This is significant because there are those who want the non-Muslim world to believe that 'jihad' refers mainly to a Muslim's spiritual struggle, and that physical struggle against unbelievers is much the lesser of the two forms. We will see in the following verses that 'qatl' and 'jihad' are indeed used interchangeably.

    Verse 217 rambles somewhat, but I will attempt to paraphrase it: First, Muslims are told it is sinful to fight during a sacred month. Then a strong hint is dropped that it would be allowed if access to the Kaaba were denied, because being oppressed (in one's desire to follow Islam) is worse than being killed. Again the pagans of Mecca would clearly be the culprits in such an increasingly non-hypothetical scenario. Finally Muslims are warned that the pagans would fight them until they denounced Islam; a decision that would void their ticket to Heaven. The fact that the Meccans had 12 years to easily inflict such oppression on Mohamed's nascent and tiny band of Muslims, but did not, is never addressed.

    Verse 218 completes this series. It says, "The believers and the Emigrants from Mecca who strive/fight (jihad) for the cause of God, indeed have hope in receiving the mercy of God". The web site from which these quotes come (The Quranic Arabic Corpus - Word by Word Grammar, Syntax and Morphology of the Holy Quran) provides seven of the most trusted English translations. Four of them translate 'jihad' as 'strive', while the other three go with 'fight'. At this point, 'qatl' and 'jihad' have become synonymous.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Next, many Islamic laws are defined, previously stated requirements are reiterated, and warnings are repeated:
    219 says wine and gambling are both sin and benefit, although the sin is greater. Contrary to what most people think, neither is deemed to be forbidden. Muslims may indulge in each, but only after all other financial obligations have been met.
    220 demands fair treatment of orphans.
    221 forbids Muslims from marrying non-Muslims unless they convert. I have frequently heard Muslims say that they are allowed to marry non-Muslims, but, in a clear attempt at misdirection, they leave out the conversion caveat.
    222 prohibits sex during menstruation.
    223 says, "Your women are a tilth (field) for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will." Nothing is mentioned about consent.
    224-237 are mostly concerned with marriage and divorce.
    238-239 give rules for praying.
    240-242 concern making plans for those left behind after death.
    243-245 return, yet again, to the subject of fighting. Muslims are reminded to fight in the cause of Allah.
    246-253 speak of the Jews after the time of Moses, including reiteration of various biblical stories.
    254-274 are reminders of God's omniscience, the necessity of obedience, practicing charity, and the inevitability of judgement.

    The above series contains one of the most quoted verses of the Qur'an - verse 256. It says, "Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things."

    This verse is frequently given as proof that Islam is a religion of peace, but if that were true, it would countermand previous (and future) commands to Muslims to "fight in the cause of God". In fact, a careful read of it will reveal that it only promises free will in choosing whether or not to believe in the 'one true god', thereby reaping a reward of everlasting bliss, or denying Him and suffering eternal torment; a choice already given in hundreds of Meccan verses. It has nothing to do with peaceful coexistence nor whether people will be compelled to live under Islamic rule while being allowed to retain their own beliefs; the option given to "the people of the book" in surah 9.

    Another noteworthy phrase in 256 is, "whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah". There is no option in Islam for simple non-confrontational disbelief without, by definition, embracing evil as the only alternative. This false dichotomy, and the unceasing repetition of it, is unquestionably designed to create an adversarial relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims.

    New rules are revealed next:
    275-281 forbid usury. God and Mohamed will declare war on anyone who charges interest (279).
    282-283 give rules for making and enforcing contracts. When requiring witnesses to resolve a transactional dispute, two male witnesses must be produced. Should a second man not be available, two women may be substituted. As God explains, that is so the second women can remind the first women should she become forgetful.

    Verses 284-286 bring surah 2 to an end:
    284-285 are another reminder of God's oneness and the importance of believing in holy scripture.
    286 promises God will not overburden anyone, but will judge each justly. It asks for God's help and forgiveness. Finally it ends, apropos of nothing, with a plea to God to "give us victory over the unbelievers". The fact that Islam is at war with unbelievers is becoming clearer. Should any doubt remain, the next surah (8) is titled "Al anfil", which means "The spoils of War".
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    So in other words, Mohammed borrowed some crazy a** s**t, and turned it into even crazier a** s**t.


    OM

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    Re: The Qur'an in chronological order.

    Quote Originally Posted by Omega Man View Post
    So in other words, Mohammed borrowed some crazy a** s**t, and turned it into even crazier a** s**t.


    OM
    It would appear so. He spent 12 years trying to scare the pagans of Mecca into following him by repeating, ad nauseam, stories that they didn't even believe in to begin with. As a sidebar, I found it amusing that in the first few years when he talked about heaven, he simply described the whole milk and honey thing. Then, as if to say, "Hey, did I forget to tell you about the virgins???, he made sure to include them in the brochure.
    - See something, say something, get called an Islamophobe.
    - The absence of hostilities does not prove the absence of hostility.
    - Legitimate criticism is neither hate speech, phobic, nor incitement to commit violence.
    - I choose my words very, very, VERY carefully. - Jordan Peterson.

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