"Every time something really bad happens, people cry out for safety, and the government answers by taking rights away from good people." - Penn Jillette.
From the list of choices given, I'd say philosophy and psychology, depending on the individual in question. For a person who tends not to be religious in the first place, philosophy is a pretty close disclipine. For someone who has a strong religious tendency, psychology is probably a better substitute, as it is the study of "mind", which is the real underlying focus of religion's influence on the individual.
Note, I am referring to the effects on the individual, and not on the religious community or group as a whole. To me, religion is a highly personal and individualized practice.
"God is the name by which I designate all things which cross my path violently and recklessly, all things which alter my plans and intentions, and change the course of my life, for better or for worse."
-C G Jung
Politics replaces religion once religion is lost, for most. It's where people tend to turn for transcendent meaning / higher purpose / etc. when they lack a faith in the divine.
“If we must have an enemy at the head of Government, let it be one whom we can oppose, and for whom we are not responsible, who will not involve our party in the disgrace of his foolish and bad measures.”
- Alexander Hamilton. Spiritual father of #NeverTrump
I have a relationship with God that has nothing to do with religion (although I don't discount the work of religious people and am extensively read in a number of religious traditions). So I'd certainly fall back on that.
I'd also rely on the people in my life to help me through whatever difficult time I encountered.
I guess I could also have voted for science because, dependent upon what the issue was, that would certainly be one method of dealing with it.
“Now it is not good for the Christian’s health to hustle the Aryan brown,
For the Christian riles, and the Aryan smiles and he weareth the Christian down;
And the end of the fight is a tombstone white with the name of the late deceased,
And the epitaph drear: “A Fool lies here who tried to hustle the East.”