Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its[ FEDERAL ]powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
the bill of right are clauses which are declaratory and restrictive to the federal government, government cannot change restrictions which are to bind them.
as jefferson says, "the chains of the Constitution".....which bind that federal government