When in a country, there are ethnic/racial minorities, and their average material situation such as income, education level and representation, is lower than that of the majority ethnicity/race, that of course begs for questions (assuming there is no legal discrimination, obviously). The only two reasons I can think of are that 1) they are not given equal opportunities, because the majority maintains a "privilege", or 2) something about that ethnicity/race makes them inherently incapable of achieving like the majority.
As far as I know, blacks in America have a considerably lower income and education average compared to whites. Why is that? You answer me, because I am not sure. But I don't like explanations that belong to 2), such as "blacks are genetically less intelligent/ambitious/etc". Following 2), maybe it's their culture? But what is "black culture"? Aren't African Americans exposed to the same culture as white Americans?
1) would encompass arguments such as "white privilege": Due to involuntary, non-malicious racist stereotypes, blacks are disadvantaged in a society dominated by whites. Maybe white employers are less likely to hire a qualified black than a white employee, because they have (subconscious, involuntary) prejudices. Maybe white teachers show the same prejudice towards black pupils.
Most likely, the real problem is not due to one single reason, but a mix of various of these reasons, to different degrees. So what do you think? Did I overlook something important?