quite a few years ago I was involved in a program to get disadvantaged mothers of young (preschool) children into some of socially positive activities and engaging in education. We also did life skills training, including parenting skills. By the time the children started school they did significantly better, on average, than other children from similar backgrounds for at least the first few years (and from what I heard later this was sustained over a longer period). for the women, it improved self esteem, mental health outcomes, and self reliance, as well as engagement in education, training and employment.
I believe there has been research into the effectiveness of this kind of approach in the US as well.
I think a more equal distribution of resources is a good thing (and we see an increasing disparity in income now - especially in the US - which is a bad thing) but I think that by INVESTING in education, training, opportunities for social participation (eg enabling children from disadvantaged backgrounds to participate fully in activities which usually they can not afford), supporting parents to develop their own resilience and skills, and ensuring that families have adequate housing, health care etc, is important ... and I think affordable higher education opportunities are important in increasing social mobility as well