"I am appalled that somebody who is the nominee...would take that kind of position"
"A court took away a presidency"
"...the brother of a man running for president was the governor of the state..."
It's horrifying because Trump is blunt instead of making overt implications.
Ars Technica has a good writeup.
The researchers propose that, if an organism possesses an ability to overcome arsenate’s instability, it might be able to exchange phosphorus for arsenic in biological pathways. To test their hypothesis, they extracted GFAJ-1 from Mono Lake and subjected the bacteria to an artificial medium with increasing concentrations of arsenate and only trace amounts of phosphate.
GFAJ-1 bacteria grew slower with arsenate than they would with phosphate, but they were still able to increase their cell count by 20-fold in six days. The cells ended up containing 0.19 percent arsenic by dry weight compared to just 0.001 percent in the control cells. More importantly, the cells grown in arsenate were noticeably different in morphology from the control population. They were 1.5 times bigger by volume and developed large vacuole-like regions inside the cells.
Rather than just retaining arsenic inside the cells, the authors provided evidence that the bacteria actually integrated arsenic into DNA and possibly other biomolecules. They found higher arsenic and lower phosphorus content in purified genomic DNA of bacteria grown in arsenate compared to control cells.
Synchrotron X-ray studies of intracellular arsenic revealed that it is mostly likely bound to four oxygen atoms and then distally bound to a carbon atom. This configuration is consistent with arsenic replacing phosphorus in the backbone DNA. Substitution of elements is known to occur in biological processes (e.g., copper in hemocyanin vs. iron in hemoglobin for oxygen transport), but it has not been seen in something as fundamental as the structure of DNA, nor has it been observed with arsenic.
Moderator's Warning: Merged the three threads, including the one in the Science section here to consolidate and reduce confusion. Sorry for the disruption, please carry on. Fascinating stuff.
I can already tell you whats going on.
We are here, we are among you, we have been watching and we are not pleased.
We will come from the sky, we will take over, your leaders will be punished, and those who have nothing, shall recieve everything, from money grabbing CEO's, to ruthless Rebel leaders and criminals, we know who you are, we know where you live, and when we come, you will feel our wrath.
Be afraid, be very afraid.
A screaming comes across the sky.
It has happened before, but there is nothing to compare it to now.Pynchon - Gravity's Rainbow
Also the fact, that they have made Arsenic-based life on earth could also be a indicator that life can evolve anywhere, and in any environment. Which means the possibility of life on other planets than earth has just tripled.
This is a groundbreaking discovery, that I'm going all nerdy over.
Last edited by RyrineaHaruno; 12-02-10 at 05:13 PM.
(from article, paragraph 8, first sentence):
The newly discovered microbe, strain GFAJ-1, is a member of a common group of bacteria, the Gammaproteobacteria
This bacteria is a part of life as we know it, that life being of common descent
from one primordial organism, as we are.
It just so happens that this one has relative immunity to arsenic. I wonder if
bitter almonds were very much rarer than they are, and were discovered today,
whether the cyanide tolerance of the plant might be considered as remarkable
as the arsenic tolerance of this bug from Mono Lake.
Arsenic is an element - not a chemical compound - this adds to the list of potential elements that can be core constituents of organic molecules (in this case DNA) - it does not say that certain compounds made of elements that are already known to be common to life can be tolerated, it adds a new element to the list of what to look for for life itself.
And this is beyond it being relatively immune to arsenic, it is actually utilizing it in DNA in place of what was an essential element to all other observed lifeforms (phosphorous).
edit: and yes digitoxin and palytoxin are much more complex than cyanide, but they are still compounds that are produced organically
Last edited by marduc; 12-02-10 at 05:57 PM.
It's Thursday, where's the press release?