The US was in many way arguably destined to become a top, if not the top, economy at the point of its birth. It had many advantages not found in other countries at that time, it had no natural enemies or hostile powers surrounding it, which meant defense spending could be kept a very small part of the budget, it had seemingly limitless amounts of territory to expand over, it had a government which put the individual citizen in a position not seen anywhere else in the world at that time, and it had leaders, political and business, which not only were willing but praised for trying and experimenting new things. Unlike many other nations at the time, the US had almost no interest in stability as it was defined by European powers for example. Of course thats a simple model but merely looking at the geography and political situation in the late 1700s and early 1800s should show the US had a pretty good position to start from. And of course it wasn't guaranteed, any number of things like the Civil War or a poor performance in the War of 1812 could have squashed it, but again it had a good starting position.
However today the world is different, and while political and social constraints hold back what should easily be the worlds top economy and nation, Russia, many of the factors which held other parts of the world down no longer exist. And while they have problems of their own, they certainly are in a much better position to take on the world economically. For example India from 1800 to 2000 underwent 3 changes which moved it from a simple colony and holding, to a potential world economic power. Those were, the access to technology on par with the rest of the world, the end of the caste system, and the induction of capitalism. Of course the description is simple and the actual task of implementing all those things is great, but a few changes can make a world of difference. For example access to technology is one thing, actually integrating it into society is a whole other matter. But imagine if India were totally technologically updated, like S.Korea, Japan, the US or Europe, ended social prejudices, and instilled a philosophy of individual accomplishment(which is has in many ways to an insane degree). It would easily be the top economy in the world, and its enroute to those goals.
And thats a very simple model and argument because frankly the length of any accurate and detailed explanation of why some countries are better suited for economic growth and power would, and should, occupy a book.