Divisions of the world in Islam
In Islamic theology and legal interpretations, the Ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole World under the Dominion of Islam.
Accordingly each part of the world is given a descriptive status to delineate its Current state in regards to the Aims of Islam
and to define the permissible conduct of Muslims in those regions.
Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house of Submission)
is a term used to refer to those lands under Muslim government(s).
In the conservative tradition of Islam the world is divided into two components: dar al-Islam, the house of submission and dar al-Harb, the house of war.
Dar al-Harb (Arabic: دار الحرب "house of war") is a term used to refer to those areas outside Muslim rule.
The term traditionally refers to those lands administered by non-Muslim governments. The exact definitions of these territories can vary widely according to the viewer's concept of who is and is not a Muslim, and which governments are or are not Muslim in practice. The inhabitants of the Dar al-Harb are called harbis.
Dar al Hudna (Arabic: "house of calm"):The land of non-believers currently under truce which is in Respite between Wars.
Truce is bought by tribute by harbis. If the harbis Refuse to pay Tribute in exchange for the Truce, hostilities are resumed. Furthermore, only treaties that conform to Islamic prescriptions are valid; if these conditions are not fulfilled the treaty is worthless.
Dar al-'Ahd (Arabic: دار العهد "house of truce" or Dar al-Sulh "house of treaty") was invented to describe the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states. The invention Dar al-Ahd was necessary, as the worldview prevalent at the time did not allow for a protracted peace with non-Muslim states, even those under Muslim domination.
Today, the term refers to those non-Muslim governments which have armistice or peace agreements with Muslim governments. The actual status of the non-Muslim country in question may vary from acknowledged equality to tributary states.
Dar al-Kufr (Arabic: دار الكفر, "house of infidels" or "domain of disbelief")
is a term used by Muhammad to refer to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return.
For much of Islamic history, the preferred term used to describe non-Islamic societies has been dar al-Harb, emphasizing various Islamic countries' aspirations to Conquer such territories and render them part of dar al-Islam.
A traditional Arabic saying attributed to Muhammad goes: "Unbelief is one community", or in other words, "infidels are of one nation", expressing the view that distinctions between different types of non-Muslims are insignificant in relation to the overriding distinction between Muslim and non-Muslim...."