not submitted to the Senate are known as ‘‘executive agreements’’
in the United States, but they are considered treaties and
therefore binding under international law.
For various reasons, Presidents have increasingly concluded executive
agreements. Many agreements are previously authorized or
specifically approved by legislation, and such ‘‘congressionalexecutive’’
or statutory agreements have been treated almost interchangeably
with treaties in several important court cases. Others,
often referred to as ‘‘sole executive agreements,’’ are made pursuant
to inherent powers claimed by the President under Article II
of the Constitution. Neither the Senate nor the Congress as a
whole is involved in concluding sole executive agreements, and
their status in domestic law is not fully resolved.