By 2009 the groups that became ISIS had been defeated and were in check in Iraq. The Syrian uprising degenerated into stalemate when the first wave of moderate opposition went unsupported in early 2012. Extremists took over that conflict, and with the departure of US forces from Iraq in 2011 Iraqi forces were significantly enfeebled.
"It's always reassuring to find you've made the right enemies." -- William J. Donovan