2. The state isn't appealing because no judgment has been issued against them. The only thing being injuncted is the illegal act of a local official to grant fraudulent marriage licenses.
Technically the State Supreme Court has not attempted to "trump" a federal court order as the 4th Circuit hasn't issued an order applicable to South Carolina. The lower court State judges kind of jumped the gun by ordering licenses were to be issued without guidance from the Governor and AG as to whether they would continue to defend that States ban.
What really has to occur is a case must proceed through the Federal District Court and be ruled on. Once that ruling is in place it can be appealed to the 4th Circuit Court who would accept or reject the appeal. If the District Court rules to overturn the ban, the State can appeal to the 4th Circuit. If the 4th Circuit rejects the appeal, the State can appeal to the SCOTUS for an immediate to keep SSCM's from starting. If that appeal is rejected at the SCOTUS like the others, assuming the District Court and Appeals Court rules the ban is unconstitutional, then Circuit Court orders SSCM's to start.
Basically the process is a delaying tactic at this point. What I assume South Carolina is hoping for is for the 6th Circuit Court to rule on the case (IIRC) out of Kentucky and that the 6th Circuit rules to uphold the ban. Then there is a split in the Circuit Court decisions which increases the chances the SCOTUS would (a) issue a new round of stays, and (b) that the SCOTUS will take the case.
I specifically said "Civil Marriage" (i.e. that recognized under the law), if those Civil Marriages occurred in a State Jurisdiction where the Civil Marriage was legal - then the government can't just "not recognize them". That's what Windsor was about, the Federal government choosing "not to recognize" valid Civil Marriages - that action was ruled unconstitutional.
The bottom line is individual states have voted over and over again to define marriage as a union between a man and a woman and left wing activist judges in most cases have over ruled the will of the people and that is just wrong no matter what liberals say.
"God Bless Our Troops in Harms Way."
Ich habe schon Pferde vor der Apotheke kotzen sehen.