Section 2 of the 14th amendment has your answer as far as women's suffrage.
"But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State."
The wording was deliberately chosen to keep women from using Section 1 to argue for the right to vote. Never before had the words "male" or "female" been used in the Constitution.