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"WHO IS GUILTY OF FALLING INTO THE SECOND WORLD WAR? Political policies of Prime-minister of Great Britain Sir Winston Churchill and US President’s authorized representative William Bullitt in 1933 – 1940 have to undergo the International tribunal evaluation.
On the 8th of May many celebrated the 69th anniversary of victory of so called freedom-loving nations over the Nazi Germany. Adolf Hitler, whose name is associated with the bloodiest events of humankind history, remains to be the main person responsible for initiating this international conflict. There is no doubt that Hitler played a big role in this tragedy, however his famous ideology of the superiority of German nation played a low-down trick with himself.
Taking this idea as a basis for political structure of a new Germany, Hitler fell into a crafty political trap, set by leaders of United States and Great Britain. They accused him of incitement of world conflict, and gained laurels for fighting the anti-human totalitarian regime.
The actual cause of military moves were the territorial disputes between Poland and Germany.
The truth is that such country as Poland appeared on world map after the First World War, as a result of The Versailles Treaty. The western strategists thought Poland would become a great counterbalance for just defeated German Empire. And what’s more many originally German lands were given to Poland – Poznan (Posen in German), Eastern Pomerania, part of Prussia.
Until Germany remained weak there were no territorial claims. But when Nazi gained power, they promised to end the unfairness of The Versailles Treaty, and the question of the lost territories became burning again.
The stumbling point was so-called Polish Corridor, Baltic Polish lands, which chopped Germany off its territory in Eastern Prussia. The problem worsened because these lands were mostly inhabited by Germans, including port Danzig.
Facts indicate that Hitler wanted to negotiate with Poland friendly way.
In October 1938 German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop suggested to poles the following scenario of solving the conflict. Danzig, which was under a joint Polish-German control, should be recovered by Germany: the citizens themselves were looking forward to it. But Poland would be granted new privileged rights for Poles living there, concerning shipping, stationing military units, trading business… More than that Germany undertook the construction of a naval base in Gdynia, next to Danzig. And also Germany firmly promised not to claim any other lands from Poland and offered to confirm the inviolability of Polish borders with a new Treaty.
At first Poland agreed on these conditions. The intensive consultations and mutual visits of highest executives had begun. The conference on which the new Treaty, which would solve all territorial conflicts, was to be signed, was going to be held in Spring 1939.
However in April 1939 Poles suddenly and unilaterally cut off the negotiation process and pointedly started to prepare to war. Germans correspondingly started tit-for-tat actions. Well military and technically developed German finished the preparations earlier and was first to strike the blow. The cliché that the 2nd World War started on 1st September 1939 is incorrect. That day the German-Poland war began, and it was so for three days! Ambiguous Britain politics allowed Hitler to think that this war would remain so. However after unrealizable ultimatum Britain declared war to Germany. It was September 3rd and that was the day when the World War II had begun!
So why did Poles make such a suicidal move? The formal reason were the warlike statements of old Polish allies – France and Britain, who loud and clear promised poles a military support in case of a German invasion.
But the weirdest thing is that, if France nominally had a strong army, they were actually not prepared for war. Their industry hadn’t even begun to remodel for military use. And their military
force status is estimated by experts in military units’ construction as even worse than it used to be before the 1st World War. That’s why they couldn’t help Poland in any case.
But British and Americans… This is a bit complicated. What stand out a mile? The major part of aircraft-carriers sort of “Essex” (11 out of 14) which took part in war had been installed before United States entered World War II! So, the history largest number of huge high-powered combat ships were prepared by a non-belligerent country. Besides American congress in 1937-1940 sanctioned construction of 12 new battle-ships in addition to 15 already possessed, quite modern, well armed and armored. Which means that we can state a fact that the back bone of the navy power according to the sea doctrine of that years, battle ships, were constructed and prepared before US joined allies in war.
For comparison the “bloodthirsty aggressors” (Germans and Japanese) hardly put into operation 4 battle-ships against 15 belonging to Britain and United States. Both of these countries prepared these ships way before the beginning of the war. So the question is – who planned on starting it?
However British and Americans increasing their overwhelming superiority on sea didn’t assume a possibility to military support Poland. The fact that US before the war had 400 tanks was not a real problem. Its industry “warmed up” by the earlier armament drive began to product tanks fast as if they were saucepans, by numerous series.
But then who pushed Poles and French into war? Who warmed their martial mood?
The Answer became vivid when the Poland was defeated, Autumn 1939. Studying captured Poland Foreign Ministry documents, Germans found reports of Polish ambassadors from Paris and Washington.
In different time periods the ambassadors had meetings with one very important American person. We speak of a US President Franklin Roosevelt authorized representative for Europian affairs William Bullitt.
The talks took place in autumn and winter 1938. Bullitt then promised Poles, that war between west democracy countries and Nazi Germany is inevitable – USA would never acknowledge Hitler’s regime. When Polish ambassador Jerzy Potocki asked if west democracy Europe would fight Hitler, Bullitt answered: “France and Britain have to put an end to any politics of compromise with totalitarian countries. United States possess different, extremely effective means of enforcement Britain and France… In case of War we will not take part in it from the very beginning, but are going to end it”.
These documents were proved by real events. Already on 2nd September 1939 Germans with the help of their Italian ally Benito Mussolini suggested East to renew the peaceful negotiations. What’s more Mussolini urged to stop combat operations and quickly summon the international conference for settling all the questions. Germany and France immediately agreed. But a threatening message from Washington prevented Western Europe from it.
…After the end of the 2nd World War, in late 40s, ex-ambassador of USA in London John Kennedy while talking with an American Minister of War Forrestal frankly confessed: “France couldn’t make Poland the reason of war, unless a constant intention of London and Washington to be so. Lord Chamberlain more than once told me that was Washington who made Western Europe countries enter the war”.