The Preamble to The Bill of Rights
Congress of the United States
begun and held at the City of New-York, on
Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.
THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its [FEDERAL] powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.
THE 2ND IS A RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE PLACED ON THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO MAKE NO LAW.
James Madison- In pursuance of the wishes thus expressed, the first Congress that assembled under the Constitution proposed certain amendments, --->[BILL OF RIGHTS] which have since, by the necessary ratifications, been made a part of it; among which amendments is the article containing, among other prohibitions on the Congress, an express declaration that they should make no law abridging the freedom of the press.
this is clear proof from James Madison that the bill of rights are prohibitions on the Congress.