In an appeal filed with the National Labor Relations Board, the union asserted that "interference by politicians and outside special interest groups" had swayed the election.
The union had faced a midnight Friday deadline for filing the action with the NLRB.
The rejection by Volkswagen workers dealt a harsh setback to the union, especially since Volkswagen did not oppose the unionization drive.
Nelson Lichtenstein, a labor history professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara, said the Democratic-controlled NLRB may be looking to set a precedent about union intimidation but that the VW vote doesn't present the best facts to do so.
"If I were a liberal member of the NLRB, I'd look for a really egregious case of management interference to make a point about curbing the capacity of management to close plants or move," said Lichtenstein, who described himself as a labor supporter.
"The prospects are poor here because it was third-party public officials."