ask yourself a question, if the federal government was unlimited, would they be able to infringe on the rights of citizens?.......the answer is yes, however becuase the federal government is limited as stated by the founders, this prevents the government from infringing on the rights of the people, because none of the 18 powers of congress intersect with the people, that is why madison and Hamilton called the constitution a bill of rights.
madsion worked day in and day out in Philadelphia (and beforehand for months in Orange County) hammering out the practical applications of legitimate government. The chief expression of this doctrine is .......enumerated powers.
The enumeration in the Constitution of specific powers delegated to the federal government is the cornerstone of American political theory and of the Constitutional Republic established in 1787.
The basic definition of enumerated powers is that the best limitation on power is to not give it in the first place. Powers as understood by Madison, Jefferson, were only legitimate if they had been granted to the government by the people and written specifically in the document through which the governed gave life to the government.
Madison ,jefferson,Hamilton, all state the federal government is limited.
Were the power of Congress to be established in the latitude contended for, it would subvert the very foundations, and transmute the very nature of the limited Government established by the people of America--madison
If the federal government should overpass the just bounds of its authority and make a tyrannical use of its powers, the people, whose creature it is, must appeal to the standard they have formed, and take such measures to redress the injury done to the Constitution as the exigency may suggest and prudence justify.
Alexander Hamilton, Federalist No. 33, January 3, 1788
the State governments possess inherent advantages, which will ever give them an influence and ascendancy over the National Government, and will for ever preclude the possibility of federal encroachments. That their liberties, indeed, can be subverted by the federal head, is repugnant to every rule of political calculation.
Alexander Hamilton, speech to the New York Ratifying Convention, June 17, 1788